Why more and more retirees aren’t actually leaving the workplace
The idea of retirement may conjure images of leisurely days spent reading, pursuing hobbies and traveling. Today, however, many retirement age Americans are choosing to, well, not really retire at all. According to a U.S. jobs report, almost 19% of people 65 or older were working at least part time in the second quarter of 2017 – the highest rate of employment for the age group since Social Security benefits began in the 1960s. That number is up from 13% in 2000, and is expected to increase to 32% over the next five years.
So why are so many forgoing a life of leisure? People are living longer than ever – and so must support themselves financially for longer, too. Studies show the opportunity to stay physically and mentally active by working is just as appealing as the paycheck for many who choose to work past retirement age. Instead of being a time to stop working altogether, research suggests that for many retirement has become a chance to pursue an “encore” career, where they can both earn an income and do work they find personally fulfilling. A 2014 study by Encore.org found that 4.5 million people between the ages of 50 and 70 have such a career, often with roles in public service or education.
A 2015 study of working retirees further supports these findings. About 15% of responders said they continued working because they enjoyed their jobs and saw no reason to stop. About a quarter of survey responders sought to achieve balance by working – wanting the income but also to maintain the social and mental benefits of staying engaged in a workplace. Another 15% of workers sought to give back and make a difference through their work. Almost 30% of survey responders needed to work for the income.
Whether you choose to continue working in your current profession, try something new, or enjoy a retirement filled with the hobbies and people you love most – there are many ways to stay active in your golden years. As your income can affect things like Social Security and Medicare premiums, just be sure to keep your financial advisor up to date as you determine the retirement that works best for you.
Sources: Bloomberg; New York Times; Pew Research Center; Investopedia; FoxBusiness.com; AARP; U.S. News; newretirement.com; Encore.org; Fast Company; Kiplinger; Wall Street Journal
Washington Policy Analyst Ed Mills addresses the new executive memo targeting Chinese trade policies.
The executive memo requires various aspects of the Trump Administration to take action to protect the United States from Chinese trade policies, including new tariffs of 25% on a yet to be released set of imports, WTO disputes and reexamination of foreign investment from Chinese firms on national security grounds. The tariffs are being imposed following a so-called “section 301” investigation, which gives the President wide discretion on imposing tariffs. One key part of this debate will be how much any of these timelines could slip and how much the list of tariffs could change with the public release/request for comment over the next 45 days. Another key issue will be the Chinese response, with early indication of approximately $3 billion in tariffs on 128 U.S. items, absent striking a compromise. This initial reaction is less than would have been feared.
The market clearly did not like this announcement, but there is an expectation that these actions will be watered down or mitigated with subsequent actions in the coming weeks. The immediate debate has been a comparison to the rollout of the steel and aluminum tariffs, where sharp rhetoric gave way to massive exclusions. The threat of a misstep remains high, and there will be plenty of debate on whether this action already represents a potential misstep, which is destabilizing for the market. Ultimately, we do see the technicalities of the WTO and the Committee on Foreign Investments (CFIUS) process (both included in the memo) as key areas where the bark can be louder than the bite.
The President has instructed that the appropriate response to China’s harmful acts, policies and practices should include three separate actions.
1. Tariffs. The President has instructed the USTR to publish a proposed list of products and any tariff increases within 15 days of Thursday’s announcement. After a period of notice and comment, the Trade Representative will publish a final list of products and tariff increases.
2. WTO dispute. The President has instructed the USTR to pursue dispute settlement in the WTO to address China’s discriminatory technology licensing practices.
3. Investment restrictions. The President has directed the Secretary of the Treasury to address concerns about investment in the United States directed or facilitated by China in industries or technologies deemed important to the United States.
Legislative and regulatory agendas are subject to change at the discretion of leadership or as dictated by events.
When markets react, consider a broader historical perspective before changing your financial course.
Pullbacks can make investors want to pull up stakes and pull out – a common reaction and a common mistake, especially for long-term investors. The right knowledge can help us avoid this mistake, and when we are willing to learn, there’s no better teacher than history.
By looking at the market over a long period of time, we’re provided with a true testament of resiliency. Each decline along the way felt terrible. And declines today feel just as bad. But when we track the overall growth the market has achieved, we learn a lesson in persistence, patience and commitment.
For every action, there’s a reaction. While Newton applied this law in the physical world, it also holds true in the realm of human emotion. When we perceive that things aren’t going our way, we react. And when coping with seemingly unpredictable returns, knowledge and time can once again be our allies. As shown in the chart below, returns over short periods of time have been typically unpredictable. But things tend to become less volatile when you expand the time horizon to five years or more using rolling returns.
Rolling returns show the behavior of returns for holding periods like those experienced by long-term investors. In the chart below, we see positive returns over every 20-year period in the S&P 500. Remembering your long-term time horizon can help when facing short-term disappointments.
Especially during declines, your advisor can act as a sounding board for your concerns. By talking about current events in light of your overall financial plan, your advisor can help provide reassuring perspective to help you stay the course, even when the market seems relatively tumultuous.
Past performance may not be indicative of future results. There is no assurance these trends will continue. The market value of securities fluctuates and you may incur a profit or a loss. Investing involves risk including the possible loss of capital. This analysis does not include transaction costs which would reduce an investor’s return. The S&P 500 is an unmanaged index of 500 widely held stocks. An investment cannot be made directly in this index. Real estate securities are susceptible to the many risks associated with the direct ownership of real estate. International investing is subject to additional risks such as currency fluctuations, different financial accounting standards by country, and possible political and economic risks, which may be greater in emerging markets. Commodities are generally considered speculative because of the significant potential for investment loss. Fixed income investments may involve market risk if sold prior to maturity, credit risk and interest rate risk. Dollar cost averaging does not assure a profit and does not protect against loss. It involves continuous investment regardless of fluctuating price levels of such securities. Investors should consider their financial ability to continue purchases through periods of low price levels.
Consider whether this savings account can help cover your international education costs.
1. Is the institution eligible?
2. What expenses are being paid?
In order to use the assets in a 529 account for qualified study abroad expenses, the expenses must be associated with the attendance of an eligible institution. Often, study abroad costs are paid to U.S.-based schools that run the programs, but there are also over 400 schools outside of the U.S. that are considered eligible. You can look up eligible institutions by using the “School Code Search” on the Department of Education’s Federal Student Aid website. Note that you may need to choose “Foreign Country” as the state.
When outside of the United States, 529 dollars are still limited to the same qualified higher education expenses as assets being used at a domestic school. Many schools charge an overall fee for the study abroad program but can provide an itemized breakdown of the total cost. Qualified expenses include tuition, fees, books, supplies, computers and equipment required for the enrollment or attendance of the beneficiary. Room and board is also often included if the student is enrolled at least half time – an allowance determined by the school in question. Notably missing from this list are travel expenses, meaning you can’t use 529 funds to pay for plane or train tickets travelling to and from your destination. For full details on qualified expenses, refer to the IRS’s Tax Benefits for Education publication.
Certain conditions may apply. Earnings in 529 plans are not subject to federal tax, and in most cases, state tax, so long as you use withdrawals for eligible education expenses, such as tuition and room and board. However, if you withdraw money from a 529 plan and do not use it on an eligible education expense, you generally will be subject to income tax and an additional 10% federal tax penalty on earnings. Investors should consider before investing whether the investor’s or the designated beneficiary’s home state offers state tax or other benefits only available for investments in such state’s 529 savings plan. Such benefits include financial aid, scholarship funds, and protection from creditors. 529 plans offered outside their resident state may not provide the same tax benefits as those offered within their state.
It may seem like common sense, but going back over the information you enter may be the most important part of your tax filing duties.
It may seem like common sense, but going back over the information you enter may be the most important part of your tax filing duties. As you know, it’s very easy to put a figure on the wrong line – in fact, one of the most common errors is not putting in the right Social Security numbers for you, your spouse and your dependents. An error like that can cause a significant delay in the processing of your return or, even worse, could trigger an audit.
So do make an effort to recheck what you’ve entered before moving to the next line or screen. While you’re going back over your return for wrong entries and typos, take the time to look up numbers such as cost basis for investments sold and real estate tax paid, rather than estimating. And double-check your math, too, because simple miscalculations can commonly lead to errors as well.
Here are a few other tax filing tips:
1. If you looked for a new job last year, add up the cost of creating resumes, employment agency fees and travel expenses for interviews for jobs in your current line of work. These expenses may be tax deductible if you itemize.
2. Reduce your taxable income by making contributions (right up until the April filing deadline) to tax-advantaged accounts like a health savings account, traditional IRA or SEP IRA if you have self-employment income.
3. While you’re at it, review the income limitations for breaks such as deductible IRA contributions, which rise annually. Depending on how your tax situation has changed, you might be eligible now even if you weren’t before.
4. If you work out of your home, rather than laboriously itemizing for your home office deduction, use the simplified option of calculating $5 for every square foot of your home you use as your office, up to 300 square feet for a maximum deduction of $1,500.
5. File your taxes electronically. It’s the safest, easiest and fastest way to file your taxes, and you will get your refund quicker if you request direct deposit.
Be aware that the IRS never contacts taxpayers by email. If you receive an email appearing to come from the IRS about your returns, beware. It is likely a phishing attempt to get you to share sensitive information about yourself. If you receive an email like this, forward it to firstname.lastname@example.org.
It’s always best to seek the help of a professional. If you don’t already have a tax advisor, consider working with one this year to see if together you can uncover new ways to turn your tax return in your favor.
Raymond James does not offer tax advice. Please consult your tax advisor for questions regarding your tax situation.
Material prepared by Raymond James for use by its advisors.